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Disease Information


Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in females worldwide. It accounts for 16% of all female cancers and 22.9% of invasive cancers in women. 18.2% of all cancer deaths worldwide, including both males and females, are from breast cancer Breast cancer usually starts off in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. A malignant tumor can spread to other parts of the body. A breast cancer that started off in the lobules is known as lobular carcinoma, while one that developed from the ducts is called ductal carcinoma.

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas. The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains. Worldwide in 2012, lung cancer occurred in 1.8 million people and resulted in 1.6 million deaths. This makes it the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and second most common in women after breast cancer.

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine). A cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Signs and symptoms may include blood in the stool, a change in bowel movements, weight loss, and feeling tired all the time. Globally, colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer making up about 10% of all cases. In 2012, there were 1.4 million new cases and 694,000 deaths from the disease. It is more common in developed countries, where more than 65% of cases are found.

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb). It is the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual period. Other symptoms include pain with urination or sexual intercourse, or pelvic pain. Endometrial cancer occurs most commonly after menopause.

Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. Melanomas typically occur in the skin but may rarely occur in the mouth, intestines, or eye. In women they most commonly occur on the legs, while in men they are most common on the back. Sometimes they develop from a mole with concerning changes including an increase in size, irregular edges, change in color, itchiness, or skin breakdown. Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. Globally, in 2012, it newly occurred in 232,000 people. In 2015 there were 3.1 million with active disease which resulted in 59,800 deaths.

Ovarian cancer refers to any cancerous growth that occurs in the ovary. The majority of ovarian cancers arise from the epithelium (outer lining) of the ovary. According to the American Cancer Society, it is the 8th most common cancer among women in the United States (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers). However, it is the 5th most common cause of cancer deaths in women. Among the gynecologic cancers (uterine, cervical, and ovarian), ovarian cancer has the highest rate of deaths. Each year, more than 22,000 women in the U.S. are diagnosed with ovarian cancer and around 14,000 will die. Tragically, the overall 5-year survival rate is only 46 percent in most developed countries (it is lower for more advanced stages).

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass. These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. There are a number of types of pancreatic cancer. The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounts for about 85% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type. These adenocarcinomas start within the part of the pancreas which makes digestive enzymes. Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors, which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. These are generally less aggressive than pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, some grow relatively quickly. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. It may initially cause no symptoms. In later stages it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis, back or when urinating. A disease known as benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms. Other late symptoms may include feeling tired due to low levels of red blood cells.

Chromosomal Anomalies/Genetic Disorders

Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is typically associated with physical growth delays, characteristic facial features and mild to moderate intellectual disability. The average IQ of a young adult with Down syndrome is 50, equivalent to the mental ability of an 8- or 9-year-old child, but this can vary widely. Down syndrome is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities in humans. It occurs in about one per 1000 babies born each year.

DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22. While the symptoms can be variable they often include congenital heart problems, specific facial features, frequent infections, developmental delay, learning problems, and cleft palate. Associated condition include kidney problems, hearing loss, and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and Graves disease.

DiGeorge syndrome is due to the deletion 30 to 40 genes in the middle of chromosome 22 at a location known as 22q11.2. About 90% of cases occurs due to a new mutation during early development while 10% are inherited from a person's parents.

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder due to loss of function of specific genes. In newborns symptoms include weak muscles, poor feeding, and slow development. In childhood the person becomes constantly hungry which often leads to obesity and type 2 diabetes. There is also typically mild to moderate intellectual impairment and behavioral problems. Often the forehead is narrow, hands and feet small, height short, skin light in color, and those affected are unable to have children.

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47, XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males. The primary feature is sterility. Often symptoms may be subtle and many people do not realize they are affected. Sometimes symptoms are more prominent and may include weaker muscles, greater height, poor coordination, less body hair, smaller genitals, breast growth, and less interest in sex. Often it is only at puberty that these symptoms are noticed. Intelligence is usually normal; however, reading difficulties and problems with speech are more common. Symptoms are typically more severe if three or more X chromosomes are present.

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells. The earliest symptoms are often subtle problems with mood or mental abilities. A general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait often follow. As the disease advances, uncoordinated, jerky body movements become more apparent. Physical abilities gradually worsen until coordinated movement becomes difficult and the person is unable to talk. Mental abilities generally decline into dementia. The specific symptoms vary somewhat between people. Symptoms usually begin between 30 and 50 years of age, but can start at any age. The disease may develop earlier in life in each successive generation. About 8% of cases start before the age of 20 years and typically present with symptoms more similar to Parkinson's disease.

Chromosome Abnormalities (CAs) are one of the most important reason of reproductive diseases The term ‘Bad Obstetric History or BOH’ is applied to mothers in whom a previous poor pregnancy outcome is likely to have a bearing on the prognosis of her present pregnancy. The first recommendation in evaluation of couples presenting with Habitual Abortion is to make a Karyotype Analysis of parents & aborted fetus.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe type of muscular dystrophy. The symptom of muscle weakness usually begins around the age of four in boys and worsens quickly. Typically muscle loss occurs first in the upper legs and pelvis followed by those of the upper arms. This can result in trouble standing up. Most are unable to walk by the age of 12. Affected muscles may look larger due to increased fat content. Scoliosis is also common. Some may have intellectual disability. Females with a single copy of the defective gene may show mild symptoms. DMD affects about one in 5,000 males at birth. It is the most common type of muscular dystrophy. The average life expectancy is 26.

Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked recessive inherited disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness of the legs and pelvis. It is a type of dystrophinopathy. This is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes the protein dystrophin. Becker muscular dystrophy is related to Duchenne muscular dystrophy in that both result from a mutation in the dystrophin gene.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), also called autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy and 5q spinal muscular atrophy in order to distinguish it from other conditions with similar names, is a rareneuromuscular disorder characterised by loss of motor neurons and progressive muscle wasting, often leading to early death.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine. Long-term issues include difficulty breathing and coughing up mucus as a result of frequent lung infections. Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in males. Different people may have different degrees of symptoms.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder. Symptoms often include mild to moderate intellectual disability. Physical features may include a long and narrow face, large ears, flexible fingers, and large testicles. About a third of people have features of autism such as problems with social interactions and delayed speech. Hyperactivity is common and seizures occur in about 10%. Males are usually more affected than females.

Myotonic dystrophy is a long term genetic disorder that affects muscle function. Symptoms include gradually worsening muscle loss and weakness. Muscles often contract and are unable to relax. Other symptoms may include cataracts, intellectual disability, and heart conduction problems. In men there may be early balding and an inability to have children.

Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract in the atrophin-1 protein. It is also known as Haw River Syndrome and Naito-Oyanagi disease. Although this condition was perhaps first described by Smith et al. in 1958, and several sporadic cases have been reported from Western countries, this disorder seems to be very rare except in Japan.

Reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome) is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity). Coming into contact with bacteria and developing an infection can trigger the disease.[2] By the time the patient presents with symptoms, often the "trigger" infection has been cured or is in remission in chronic cases, thus making determination of the initial cause difficult.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine. Typically the joints where the spine joins the pelvis are also affected. Occasionally other joints such as the shoulders or hips are involved. Eye and bowel problems may also occur. Back pain is a characteristic symptom of AS, and it often comes and goes. Stiffness of the affected joints generally worsens over time.


Y chromosome microdeletion (YCM) is a family of genetic disorders caused by missing gene(s) in the Y chromosome. Many men with YCM exhibit no symptoms and lead normal lives. However, YCM is also known to be present in a significant number of men with reduced fertility. Men with reduced sperm production (in up to 20% of men with reduced sperm count, some form of YCM has been detected varies from oligozoospermia, significant lack of sperm, or azoospermia, complete lack of sperm.

Almost 50% of all cases of infertility may be associated with a male factor. A semen analysis that measures sperm concentration, motility and morphology has classically been used as the gold standard test for determining a man’s fertility. However, this test does not provide any information about the genetic constitution of the sperm, which is essential for normal embryo development. Thus a high level of DNA damage in sperm cells may represent a cause of male infertility that conventional examinations cannot detect.


Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents. The most common type is known as sickle-cell anaemia (SCA). It results in an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin (hemoglobin S) found in red blood cells. This leads to a rigid, sickle-like shape under certain circumstances. Problems in sickle cell disease typically begin around 5 to 6 months of age. A number of health problems may develop, such as attacks of pain ("sickle-cell crisis"), anemia, swelling in the hands and feet, bacterial infections, and stroke. Long term pain may develop as people get older. The average life expectancy in the developed world is 40 to 60 years.

The thalassemia are a group of genetic (inherited) blood disorders that share in common one feature, the defective production of hemoglobin, the protein that enables red blood cells to carry and deliver oxygen. There are many different mechanisms of defective hemoglobin synthesis and, hence, many types of thalassemia. The most familiar type of thalassemia is beta thalassemia. It involves decreased production of normal adult hemoglobin (Hb A), the predominant type of hemoglobin from soon after birth until death. (All hemoglobin consists of two parts: heme and globin). The globin part of Hb A has 4 protein sections called polypeptide chains. Two of these chains are identical and are designated the alpha chains. The other two chains are also identical to one another but differ from the alpha chains and are termed the beta chains. In persons with beta thalassemia, there is reduced or absent production of beta globin chains.

Hemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding. This results in people bleeding longer after an injury, easy bruising, and an increased risk of bleeding inside joints or the brain. Those with a mild case of the disease, may only have symptoms after an accident or during surgery. Bleeding into a joint can result in permanent damage while bleeding in the brain can result in long term headaches, seizures, or a decreased level of consciousness.

Molecular Fertility

Human implantation is a complex process requiring synchrony between a healthy embryo and a functionally competent or receptive endometrium. Diagnosis of endometrial receptivity (ER) has posed a challenge and so far most available tests have been subjective and lack accuracy and a predictive value. Microarray technology has allowed identification of the transcriptomic signature of the window of receptivity window of implantation (WOI). This technology has led to the development of a molecular diagnostic tool, the ER array (ERA) for diagnosis of ER. Use of this test in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) has shown that the WOI is displaced in a quarter of these patients and use of a personalized embryo transfer (pET) on the day designated by ERA improves reproductive performance.

Pre-Implantation Genetic Screening is used to genetically and chromosomally profile the embryo prior to implantation. This technique is used to assess if the embryo has any defects or carries any congenital diseases. This way only the best embryos will be implanted thereby reducing the probability of an unhealthy foetus.

Earlier only 5 chromosomes of the total 23 chromosomes could be analyzed. But, with PGS all 23 chromosomes can be analyzed which gives more clarity into the profile of the embryo. So using this technique only the best and unaffected embryos are transferred into the woman’s uterus. This is a great alternative to the currently practiced post conception diagnostic procedures which could lead to a selective pregnancy termination if there is something wrong with the foetus.

PGS is presently the only option available to avoid the high risk of a child affected with a genetic disease before conception. It is an appealing way to of preventing a heritable genetic disease

NIPT is noninvasive to the mother or baby with high detection rates and low false positives. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and International Society of Prenatal Diagnosis (ISPD), along with other professional societies, have stated that NIPT is an available screening option for all pregnant women.

The NIPT is one such noninvasive test that screens for aneuploidy of chromosomes 21, 18, and 13. Additional screening is available for sex chromosome aneuploidies and select microdeletions in singleton pregnancies. In twin pregnancies, screening for aneuploidy in chromosomes 21, 18, and 13 and the option to screen for the absence of the Y chromosome is available. The results are reported in 10 days after the sample is received. Depending on demand, the time to report may vary.